|Republic of Aeolia
|Status||Autonomous federal Region of Etruria|
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2016)||88% Italian
|Religion||96% Poveglian Catholic
|Demonym||Aeolian or Etrurian|
|Government||Autonomous Federal Region|
|-||President of the Senate||Donnatella Ferrari|
|-||Constitution of Etruria adopted||January 1 1921|
|-||Autonomous status||April 10 1921|
14,585 sq mi
|Currency||Etrurian florin (₣)|
|Drives on the||left|
Aeolia or officially the Republic of Aeolia (Vespasian: Repubblica Aeolia; Aeolian: Ripùbblica Aeolia) is a Autonomous Federal Region of Etruria, subordinate to the constituent state of Vespasia. Aeolia has an area of XXXX square kilometres (XXXX square miles) and a population of about 5.3 million inhabitants. The capital and largest city is Castelvetrano. Aeolia is the largest autonomous region in terms of area and population.
Aeolia is located in the south-east of Etruria in the Etrutian Sea. It extends between from the Bay of Minerva to the north and the Etrutrian Sea to the south. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Vora, which, at 3,350 m (10,990 ft), is the tallest active volcano in Artemia and one of the most active in the world. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate. The administrative area of Aeolia includes the Giarratana islands some 90km to the south.
The earliest archeological evidence of human habitation on the island dates from as early as 10,000 BC. At around 750 BC, Aeolia was host to a number of ancient Benarian and Vespasic colonies, until 167 BC when the island was annexed in full by the Vespasian Empire. The Empire held the island until its collapse in 467 AD, when it became the Kingdom of Vora. The island would remain an independent kingdom until 1257 when it was annexed by the Serene Duchy of Torrazza, it would remain under Torrazi rule for over 500 years when it was seized by the Kingdom of Vespasia and granted greater autonomy. Since unification with the rest of Vespasia, Aeolia however suffered at the hands of economic backwardness and poor political governance giving way to the infamous Aeolian Mafioso, who would effectively govern the island from 1888 to 1921. Following the creation of modern Etruria, the island has since developed economically at a rapid pace, developing a major tourist and industrial economy.
Aeolia has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature, cuisine, and architecture. It is also home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Catacombs of Vora Superiore, the Temples of Castedduvitranu and the State of Tinian.
Ancient tribes Edit
Vespasian colonisation Edit
Vespasian Empire Edit
Kingdom of Vora Edit
Torrazi domination Edit
Kingdom of Vespasia Edit
20th and 21st centuries Edit
- Main article: Piccolo Duce
Following federalisation in 1921 and the adoption of the Autonomous Charter, which turned Aeolia into a autonomous federal region subordinate to Vespasia, the island saw its first president be appointed by the Provisional Government. Guiliano Crispi however failed to secure his position, with the local elites refusing to support a civil servant from Torrazza.
Very swiftly, the provisional government in Aeolia collapsed and the island held the first post-federalisation elections in Etruria. Leopoldo Vinci (the founder of the Vinci Corporation) of the Aeolian Popular Front won the election, becoming the first state level official to be elected in 1922. Vinci secured his position by including the Federalist Party in a coalition government and set to begin growing the economy of Aeolia.
In his first official act as president however, Vinci appointed prominent anti-mafia prosecutor Alfonso Scolio to locate and destroy mafia front businesses. In 1923, the Scolio Commission discovered 66 front companies across the island and ordered their confiscation, Vinci received extraordinary powers from the federal government to prosecute the move and with the support of the Aeolian Police Service and armed soldiers of the army, confiscated the businesses, arresting the employees.
In 1924 Vinci successfully campaigned for the federal government to declare organised crime activities a capital offence, which he in turn used his extraordinary powers to arrested and execute over 1,000 suspected Mafiosi, in what is dubbed the “Year of Blood” (Anno di Sangue), however in December 1924 he extended the search to the local opposition parties, arresting and executing 11 opposition senators, his actions were decried by the opposition but their concerns and complaints were ignored by the federal government.
In the 1925 election, the Aeolian Popular Front won 55% of the vote, securing Vinci a further five years in office. However his actions had led many to condemn him as a dictator, but his continued acceptance of the superiority of the Vespasian state government and the Federal government permitted him no interference. Under his leadership, he successfully secured federal funding to improve industry on the island, building the Gibbiddina Steel Plant and the Mazzara Coal Mine. He also electrified the island, using his personal contacts with the Macroni Telegraph Company to bring electricity to the larger towns and cities.
His successes led to him be re-elected in 1930, making him the longest serving state governor at the time. Between 1930 and 1933 he remained focus on improving the economic status of his voters, pushing for federal investment in further industries, in 1931 the federal government began constructing several arms factories on the island and in 1933 the Casteddammar Shipyard was opened, employing 3,000 people. However his downfall came about after he purchased the shipyard for his company at below market price, federal President, Michele Rossi announced a federal investigation into his governorship, leading to his arrest in late 1933. However he was found innocent by a federal judge in early 1934 of wrongdoing but banned him from public office for life.
Vinci’s governorship (1922-1933) set a precedent for the office in Aeolia, in which many governors would use vague exceptional laws granted to the state government by the federal government to confront organised crime, to maintain strong rule. However his success in industrialising the island was owed more to his personality, many of his successors lacked such skills of persuasion and the island began to stagnate from the 1940s till the 1980s, eventually leaving the island the poorest and most backward in the federation. During this period the mafia returned but in a weakened state, usually in partnership with the corrupt state administrations.
In 1983, both the partial Etrurian land reform and special funding from the federal government's Cassa per il nazione (Fund for the Nation) from 1983 to 2003 helped the Aeolian economy. During this period, the economic and social condition of the island was generally improved thanks to important investments on infrastructures such as motorways and airports, and thanks to the creation of important industrial and commercial areas. In the 1990s, the Mafioso was deeply weakened by a second important campaign led by the federal government, leading the mass arrest of over 300 senior Mafiosi and the destruction of at least 8 syndicates. Between 1990 and 2001, the unemployment rate fell from 31% to 20% and between 2004 and 2011 it fell again to 11%, where it has remained since.
The politics of Aeolia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the Prefect of State is the head of government, and holds the office as leader of the largest party or coalition in the Aeolian Senate. Executive power is exercised by the State Government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Aeolian Senate. The capital of Aeolia is Castelvetrano.
Traditionally, Aeolia gives centre-left results during election. Re-electing the Etrurian Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Etruriana) to both the state and federal levels continuously between 1950 to 2014. the island also saw strong support for the United Worker's Party, Etruria's communist movement, its best result came in 1975 with 21% of the vote and 10 seats, however it lost its seats in 1980 and never regained prominence. In 2014, it elected the Etrurian Way (Modo Etruriano, ME) to both state and federal levels, breaking its role as a stronghold for the left. In 2016 it increased its support for the Etrurian Way, with the party hold a majority of state and federal seats. Since 2014, Angelo Amato (ME) has been Prefect of State.
Administrative divisions Edit
Aeolia has a roughly rectangular in shape, earning it the name "Quadrato". To the north, it is separated from the Etrurian mainland by the Bay of Minerva (Baia di Minerva), about 20km (12 mi) at its widest. The total area of the island is 37,775 km2 (14,585 sq mi), making it the X largest administrative entity of the Etrurian Federation.
The terrain of inland Aeolia is mostly hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. The centre of Aeolia running north-to-south, are the mountain ranges of Scopello, 2,000 m (6,600 ft), Nedrennu, 1,800 m (5,900 ft), and Martiani, 1,300 m (4,300 ft), are an extension of the mainland Aventines. The cone of Mount Vora dominates the south-eastern coast. In the southwest lie the lower Nanarean Mountains, 1,000 m (3,300 ft). The mines of the Benna and Favignana comuni are part of a leading sulphur-producing area since the 1950s.
Aeolia and its surrounding small islands have some highly active volcanoes. Mount Vora is the largest active volcano in Artemia and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions. It currently stands 3,329 metres (10,922 ft) high, though this varies with summit eruptions; the mountain is 21 m (69 ft) lower now than it was in 1994. It is the highest mountain in Etruria south of the Etrurians. Vora covers an area of 1,190 km2 (459 sq mi) with a basal circumference of 140 km (87 mi). This makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Etruria, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Venetario. Mount Vora is widely regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Aeolia.
Aeolia has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot, dry summers with very changeable intermediate seasons. Aeolia is seen as an island of warm winters but also, above all along the Etrutian coast and in the inland areas, winters can be cold, with typical continental climate.
Snow falls in abundance above 900-1000 metres, but stronger cold waves can easily carry it in the hills and even in coastal cities, especially in the northern coast of island. The interior mountains, especially Nedrennu, Scopello and Vora, enjoy a fully mountain climate, with heavy snowfalls during winter. The summit of Mount Vora is usually snow capped from October to May.
On the other hand, especially in the summer rainfall is scarce, and water proves deficient in some provinces where it can happen sometimes water crises.
According to the Federal Atmospheric Institute, on 10 August 2009, the regional weather station recorded a maximum temperature of 48.5 °C (119 °F). The official Etrurian record – measured by minimum/maximum thermometers – is held by Accadia, which reported a maximum of 48.0 °C (118 °F) in 1999. Total precipitation is highly variable, generally increasing with elevation. In general, the southern and southeast coast receives the least rainfall (less than 50 cm (20 in)), and the northern and northeastern highlands the most (over 100 cm (39 in)).
Aeolia was one of the main recepients of Etruria's strong GDP growth from 2000 to 2010, regularly topping the ratings as the fastest growing administrative entity in the Federation. As of 2016 it is the fourth richest state of Etruria in terms of total GDP. A series of reforms and investments on agriculture such as the introduction of modern irrigation systems have made this important industry competitive, especially against Torrazza and Vespasia.
In the 1980s there was strong growth in the industrial sector through the creation of several factories and the expansion of the Casteddammar Shipyards. In recent years the importance of the service industry has grown for the opening of several shopping malls and for a modest growth of financial and telecommunication activities. Tourism has grown to be an important source of wealth for the island thanks to its natural and historical heritage. Today the Aeolian state government is investing a large amount of money on structures of the hospitality industry, in order to make tourism more competitive with the mainland, it is also using federal investment into expanding its financial services. However, Aeolia continues to have a GDP per capita below the Etrurian average and more unemployment than the rest of Etruria. This difference is mostly caused by the negative influence of the Mafia that is still active in some areas although it is much weaker than in the past and excessive cases of corruption within state institutions.